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Cordwood - Firewood

Knowing what kind of wood to burn

With increasing prices for heating, firewood provides an alternative to electric, gas, and oil heat. Cordwood is sold by the "cord" which is a stack of wood equal to 128 cubic feet, minus a small allowance for airspace between the logs.

bundle of firewoodPennsylvania requires that all cordwood be sold as a specific volume in cubic feet and designated as a portion of a cord. In other words, 32 cubic feet of firewood is of a cord. Since wood burner and fireplace logs aren't sold in 4-foot lengths, volume calculations can be a bit difficult.

Photo: Packaged bundle of firewood
  

 

Firewood is also sold by the face cord - a stack of wood 8 ft long and 4 ft high, with logs of different lengths. The length of the individual logs will determine the actual volume contained in the face cord of wood.
  
If logs are 24 inches long, a face cord contains cord of wood. And if logs are 16 inches long, a face cord contains 1/3 cord of wood. Therefore, a full cord with 16-inch long logs would be a firewood stack 4 feet high x 24 feet long. Air space in most piles averages twenty-five to thirty percent.
  

  

  
FULL CORD OF WOOD

1 cord of tightly stacked firewood =

4 feet x 4 feet x 8 feet =

128 cubic feet
  


Heat value

Hardwoods (beech, hickory, oak, and locust) are much denser than softwoods and have better heat value.
   

  
HEAT VALUE OF CORDWOOD

1. White Oak
2. Black Locust
3. Shagbark Hickory
4. Sugar Maple
5. Beech
6. Red Oak
7. White Ash
8. Red Maple
9. Black Walnut
10. Cherry
   

  

Firewood characteristics

Ash is often called the "Firewood of Kings" since it burns well even when it's green (freshly cut). Some types of wood are just nicer to burn since they're easier to catch on fire, they burn slowly and don't pop or spark.
   
Most woods high in resin content (like pine, spruce, and fir) aren't used in the fireplace or woodburner, since resin build-up inside a chimney can lead to a chimney fire. But no matter what type of wood is burned, it's important to practice good maintenance by having your chimney periodically swept and inspected.
   
Applying ratings to the overall quality of firewood is open to debate, but the categories below will give you a good idea of how firewood rates.
   

split Cherry firewood log
Split log of cherry cordwood
  
  

Overall Rating Cordwood
  
EXCELLENT
  
Oak, beech, sugar maple, hickory, ash
  
GOOD
  
Black locust, black cherry, black walnut, red maple
  
FAIR
  
White pine, sweet gum, elm, poplar

POOR
  
Spruces

 

  


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